Since the III Millennium ad, in Egypt are Grand, monumental buildings, temple complexes, irrigation and other facilities . Major construction of monumental stone buildings — wall and beam rack, which served as the basis of post-and-beam system . Of solid masonry were built with relatively simple funeral facilities — mastaba (bench), and then more complex — the ziggurats and pyramids ; post-and-beam system was used to build temples.
The Egyptians had carved huge stone blocks, which turned into obelisks, pillars and columns equal to the height of three, four storey building. Individual stone blocks were hewn diagonalise to each other without mortar. The unfolding of these blocks post-and-beam system acquired a different art form, which gradually turned into the constructive strict proportional composition (Fig. 1, a), later to be known as the order (. In the development of the Egyptian order is most clearly formed columns (pillars) and in particular the heads (capitals) (Fig. 1,b). Continue reading
Sharp wooden spire of the bell tower rises above the stone Church. Only up close you can see that this is not one, but two separate buildings, standing very close is the bell tower built in the XVIII century near the facade of the Gothic Church, which for three hundred years older. Stone temple Dating back to the XIV century, the outside does not seem particularly interesting. Neatly whitewashed small single-nave Church-the Church, built in a defensive style. However, the outward simplicity of the temple is deceptive. Special historical and artistic value is covered with paintings of the XVIII century the ceiling. It is made of wood and divided into 60 squares (tiles), each with painted stylized floral ornaments. The name of a carpenter working on the ceiling, you know – his name was Sandor Ferenc. On one of the wooden squares, the wizard left the image plane, and the other set a date of 1753. But the name of the artist history is silent.
Special glamor attached to the ceiling of the temple Matt black, white and gold colours of the squares on which the unknown painter has caused the amazing beauty of the patterns. Continue reading
In 1982, for the first time since the 1950s, repaired the roof and praporom the Dovmont (Smerda) tower, first mentioned in 1433, and laid over now Smetime gate of the Kremlin, the level of which it is possible now to understand the level Veche square. Dovmont town in Pskov called the springs “City Domantovo wall”.
Dovmontova tower is completely distorted Gothic pseudohistorical the mid-nineteenth century, have been researched and published materials of the Discharge order stored in the Moscow Archives of the Ministry of Justice (the famous volume DEPARTMENT that appeared in the early twentieth century before World War I) and its containing a list of the Pskov fortress, prepared, generally, by the Governor and containing sufficiently detailed descriptions of the fortifications, and “outfits” (guns) on them.
In the end, Nicholas initiated the First of the first restoration of the Pskov Kremlin, without any justification brought into the Gothic, and even Percy (legit wall of the Pskov Krom) refused inclined and not vertical, as it should be and, in addition, inflated by several meters, which “pulled” the error in height all surrounding areas of the fortress wall at the further restorations. Continue reading