Gothic style in architecture
The style was born in France in the mid-twelfth-century contemporaries it was called French. Italian architects three centuries later, comparing it with classical Roman architecture. dubbed the style “Gothic” (ital. gotico – cruel, brutal).
The impression of Gothic structures – the aspiration of the entire structure up. Pointed arches reaching for the sky, to the top of the building becomes more slender, like a thin stalk of a plant. The Romanesque arch from heavy slabs were replaced by a more lightweight frame. Gothic arch based on the arch with protruding ribs of the frame – ribs, which distribute the load on pillars and columns. Born new Gothic shaped support column, or “beam”, of six, eight, or more columns. He reduced the load on the wall and eased overlap, which allowed to increase the interior volume of the building. Windows increased in size, which allowed to decorate their beautiful stained-glass Windows; the simple style in perfect harmony with the bright and glowing against the Sandstone colored Windows. These innovations allowed the Gothic churches the more air and light.
Numerous arches frame the entrance doors. This technique is known as a promising portal. It pervades the top of its edge mid-round Windows, which in the likeness of the flower called the rose. With lots of petals and filigree ornaments carved of stone, this item day the decoration of the entire ensemble. The sermon in stone is called sculpture in the Gothic cathedrals – carved images of the saints have great power to influence. Sculpture adorned the sides of the facades and the roof edge. Rack end for rainwater gargoyles (FR. gargouille – downpipe), they are figures of animals, from the open mouth of which water flows, and all the sculptures are connected by a plot.
Sculptural stone carving – a feature of Gothic architecture. Strange stone plants end finials, winergy (it. Windberg – wind protection), buttresses (FR. contre force – counterforce). On their edges sprout leaves unknown – crabby (it. Krabbe). External architectural decoration of the Gothic Cathedral resembles woven of stone lace – weave flowers and leaves. The light penetrating through the stained glass huge Windows and dividing for hundreds of coloured lights give the whole room a festive character, the sound of the organ carries and enhance the visual effect, and everyday world dissolves behind the walls.