The Absheron Lighthouse
The Eastern part of the Absheron Peninsula of the greater Caucasus. The Absheron called acting in the Caspian sea Absheron Peninsula to the Islands of Absheron and Baku archipelagos and adjacent to the West of the foothills of Gobustan. The Absheron Peninsula is the capital of Azerbaijan Baku v. The Absheron Peninsula is about 8 thousand sq km (9 % of Azerbaijani territory) but live here for more than a quarter of the population. Baku already in the 12th century became an important port on the Caspian sea. Through it was the trade of the East with Northern Europe, Russia, the Baltic States.
Inhabited Absheron since ancient times. There are ancient cyclopean buildings, fortresses, castles, temple of fire worshippers. rock tombs, various monuments of medieval architecture. Intensive construction of castles on the Absheron Peninsula began in the XII century. The elevation of the role of the port city of Baku in the state of Shirvanshahs had demanded the creation of a defensive system in the city, and the entire Absheron Peninsula.
Were erected castles and towers and along the Northern coast ( Mardakan, Shuvalan, Buzovna, Bilga, O. Pirallahi), and in the depths of the Peninsula (Qala, mashtagha, Ramana, fatmai, Bilajari, Amircan, Sabunchi, Keshla). The most intensive economic life of the Apsheron Peninsula began to develop since the 70-ies of the 19th century, when there began the commercial development of oil. In the early 20th century Absheron came in first place in the world in oil production. The Palace of the Shirvanshahs in Baku. The courthouse.
The climate of Absheron is dry-subtropical. Summers are hot and dry, and winter is v mild, snowless and Sunny. Residents of Absheron Peninsula have long learned to grow grapes, figs, pomegranate, pistachios, almonds, mulberries. Absheron grape varieties AG-Shana and Kara Shana differ in taste, rich in glucose, have therapeutic properties. Near the coast in sandy hollows creating melons (botany), where they grow wonderful zorinskie melon, fragrant and sweet watermelons, pumpkins. Absheron dachas v place of Baku from the city. On their farms the residents of Baku and its suburbs grow eggplants, tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, radish and assorted kitchen herbs (cilantro, dill, onion, radish, tarragon, sorrel).
Absheron receive the early and the late v vegetables cabbage, cucumbers, lettuce, and saffron. Apsherons v hardworking, skilled farmers, they very wisely used all the natural conditions of their homeland: solar heat, soil, sand, winds, ground water. First here, as in Holland and in each yard there were windmills. They pumped water from wells and irrigated melons. Turned out to be unnecessary and reservoirs v underground reservoir, which is still found on the former caravan routes of the Absheron Peninsula. They were used in the old farmers, travelers, warriors, and nomads.
In the southwest Absheron Peninsula, Baku on the slopes of the plateau of the amphitheatre surrounding the horseshoe-shaped Bay that stretches v Baku, the capital, political, administrative and cultural center of Azerbaijan. The origin of the name of Baku historians interpret differently. Some explain that the word Baku comes from “bad-Kube” – blow winds, or from “bad Kiu” – the windy city, others believe that the town got its name from the tribe “Bakan” or “bugs” inhabiting the Absheron Peninsula in the XII – V centuries BC.
As already mentioned, the Absheron Peninsula is rich in historical monuments of the middle ages – castles and towers in the first place. On the Northern coast of Apsheron, in 40 km from Baku, is located suburban area of Nardaran. There are well preserved fourteenth century castle with a high tower and fortified walls. Laconic inscription in Arabic made on the South wall of one of the towers tell that the architect Ali Mahmud Ibn Saad built this Fort in the funds of the Governor of the Arab Caliphate v Hur Burke (XII century). One of the city of chatelineau v of Nardaran Amburan lighthouse at Cape Kaluga.
In Mardakan settlement many monuments. One v lock with round donjon (architect v me Mar Abd-al-Majid, the son of Mas’ood), was built in 1232 the height of the tower v 16 m, thickness of walls reaches the bottom of 3.4 m. Three inner tiers of the tower, covered by spherical domes are connected by a spiral stone staircase, laid in the wall. Large quadrangular castle in the village of Mardakan (XII-XIV century) is located inside the 4-yard coal, is enclosed with walls 7 meters high. Dvadtsatikilometrovaya the height of his donjon divided into 5 tiers, connected by spiral staircases. Rough surface of the walls of the donjon shaded slit-like embrasures and rich crown of machicolations and battlements.
The mosque of Tuba-Shahi built in 1482. Its asymmetrical composition includes a rigorous portal, and the adjoining one side of the prayer hall. This song was until the XVIII century is mandatory for all built after the Absheron mosques.
To the North-East at 30 km from Baku is the Surakhany village. The temple of fire “Ateshgah” – in the South-Eastern suburb of Surakhany. “Ateshgah” was built in XVII-XVIII centuries on a place of eternal, inextinguishable fires – burning natural gas. From very remote times was revered these lights. The current fire temple was built on the site of an ancient Shrine of fire-worshippers-Zoroastrians. During the XVIII century around the sanctuary have chapels, cells and caravanserai. In the early nineteenth century the Church had already the form in which it came to us. It is pentagonal in plan structure with a castellation and entrance portal.
In the center of the courtyard stands a quadrangular rotunda of the main temple altar. Above the entrance portal is arranged the traditional Absheron guest room – “Bala Khan”. Built in local architectural traditions, “Ateshgah” combines features of ancient fire altars. The earliest construction of the temple, stable relates to 1713 the latest is the Central temple-altar was built, as its inscription States, on the means of merchant Mancanegara in 1810 On the cells of the monument are carved in stone inscriptions, filled fonts for Indic scripts-Devanagari and gurmukhi.In 16 inscriptions of the temple, in the form of the introductory formula of verse /shlokov/ and phrases lives of the ancient language – Sanskrit. In 1975, the monument restoration work.
In Ramana village on a rocky spur located another Absheron castle (mid XIV century). The platform on which rests the castle, the courtyard and the walls have the shape of an elongated polygon. On the walls of the castle stands the strong square donjon, the corners of which are strengthened with three-quarter towers.
To the South-West of Baku, about 10 km, on the shores of the Caspian sea is a resort Shikhov. It owes its origin to the thermal water springs. Here is the hospital. V Shikhov beach, a popular place of recreation for its people.