The Architecture Of Ancient Egypt
Since the III Millennium ad, in Egypt are Grand, monumental buildings, temple complexes, irrigation and other facilities . Major construction of monumental stone buildings — wall and beam rack, which served as the basis of post-and-beam system . Of solid masonry were built with relatively simple funeral facilities — mastaba (bench), and then more complex — the ziggurats and pyramids ; post-and-beam system was used to build temples.
The Egyptians had carved huge stone blocks, which turned into obelisks, pillars and columns equal to the height of three, four storey building. Individual stone blocks were hewn diagonalise to each other without mortar. The unfolding of these blocks post-and-beam system acquired a different art form, which gradually turned into the constructive strict proportional composition (Fig. 1, a), later to be known as the order (. In the development of the Egyptian order is most clearly formed columns (pillars) and in particular the heads (capitals) (Fig. 1,b). Apply massive square pillars and multi-faceted cross-section, cylindrical shape, Otaniemi upward, a height equal to 5— 6 diameters of the base with the figured slots, and reliefs. Are small caps in the form of a papyrus flower, Lotus, leaves palms or ready goddess Hunter.
Monumentalisation of Egypt evolved from the simplest type of tombs mastaba, through the stepped pyramid to a truncated tetrahedral pyramids with tombs (sarcophagi) of the pharaohs (Fig. 1,,-d). The largest complex burial structures of Ancient Egypt is a necropolis at Gizeh near Memphis, which is based on the famous pyramids of the pharaohs Cheops, Chephren and mycerinus (about XXIX—XXVII centuries BC). This is the first of the seven wonders of the Ancient world (the other six include: the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the hanging gardens of Babylon in Babylon, statue of Zeus at Olympia, the statue of Helios in Rhodes and the lighthouse of Alexandria on the island of foros).
The pyramid of Cheops is the tallest building in the world until the construction in 1889 the Eiffel tower. It was built of 2.3 million large stone blocks the work of huge number of slaves for 20 years. The stones were transported on the Nile from the Aswan quarries, dragged through the Arabian desert. Pyramid height 146,6 m (today 137) and square base 233 m is a three-dimensional bulk with a small chamber for the sarcophagus and a number of narrow passages and rooms. At the foot of the giant pyramid, as if protecting them, carved from a single rock, the Sphinx (a lion with a human head and the Pharaoh) the size of the six-storey building.
Compressive stress in the pyramid depends only on the angle at the base which was brought by the Egyptians to the limit of the natural cone loose bodies (angle of friction). Thanks to the continuous voltage strength of eternal pyramids. Sandy yellow pyramids of Cheops and Chephren and the black pyramid of menkaure, the Sphinx red head against the blue African sky — these are the oldest creations of human hands, in spite of the weight of centuries and the attempt of the conquerors, still firmly embody the saying: “the World fears time, but time fears the pyramids.”
Started after the weakening power of the pharaohs and the strengthening of priestly power, the flowering of Church building has created a diversity of forms and proportions of compositions of order, manifested in the formation of the major temple complexes in Luxor and Karnak.
The main achievements of the architecture of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt can be considered as the creation of photoorder in post-and-beam system and a creative combination of architecture, sculpture and painting in temple ensembles .
History of architecture of the ancient world covers the historical period civilizations of Greece and Rome in the period from VII—VI centuries BC to the III—IV centuries C. I. What unites them is not only the slave system, but the General features of development of culture, where Rome largely inherited Greek achievements. Differences in social and political development of these States has led to differences in the architecture.