The ancient Egyptians had many underground structures. It is easy to assume that they were illuminated by torches, or candles. Only in one building were found traces of soot, which certainly would cover the walls and ceiling. The assumption was that the lighting was provided with metal mirrors to reflect sunlight. However, the majority of underground corridors too winding. Too much you need to put the mirrors in the reflection of each subsequent mirror much brightness is lost. After the fourth reflection comes almost complete darkness.
In the burial chamber of Tutankhamun, the scientists were amazed at the wonderful frescoes that adorned its walls. Naturally, the question arose: what kind of lighting were used by the ancient wizards, putting murals on the walls? No smoke and mirrors camera could not be covered. Continue reading
The natural conditions of Ancient China. In Southeast Asia, cut off from the world by high mountains, lies the Great plain of China. In ancient times it was covered with dense forests. On the vast expanses of China plain there are two of the greatest rivers of Asia — the Yangtze and the yellow river. The soil along the banks of these rivers are so soft that they can handle even the simplest tools, made of wood or bone. Therefore, agriculture has spread here already in ancient times.
The most fertile land in the yellow river valley. Here there were the most ancient in China human settlements. But this river in the rainy season it often overflows and floods all around. Also it happens that because of the softness of the soil when the spill washes away the banks and changed the channel. The river has washed away human settlements and crops. Not by chance in China the yellow river is called “Wandering river”, “River of a thousand disasters”. Continue reading
“History, carved in stone,” it’s a common expression is fully applicable to the Metropolitan Museum-reserve “Kolomenskoye”. The snow-white Church of the ascension built in the XVI century the Grand Duke Vasily III. Luxurious Royal gates built in the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich. On a nearby hill stands the Church of St. John the Baptist, built in honor of his accession to the throne of Ivan the terrible. But in Kolomenskoye is another special attraction. And not man-made and natural. This is the famous Voice of the ravine, which the number of stacked legends about him significantly ahead of all other local relics.
The origin of the name “Voters ravine” experts explain in different ways. The romance associated with his “voices of nature”. Indeed, in the summer there are always singing birds, chirping crickets and roaring water in the Creek.
However, more convincing seems to be another version of the mythological. Historians believe that originally, the ravine was called “hair” by the name of Volos, or Veles, the pagan God – the ruler of the underworld and the patron of domestic animals. Continue reading
Signifying an important part of the “Quarter Grands boulevards”, Osman (FR. Le boulevard Haussmann) is the longest on the right Bank of the Seine. His start this wide and rapid Parisian Boulevard takes on the Italian Boulevard (Boulevard des Italiens), intersects with the Strasbourg Boulevard (Boulevard de Strasbourg), in an effort to the Republic square (Place Republique) and imperceptibly into the Boulevard Montmartre (Boulevard Montmartre) is located in 2 km from the quarter. The total length of the Boulevard Haussmann – more than 2.5 kilometers, it is because it is located in two Central neighborhoods of Paris – VIII and IX.
Ottoman shade Alsatian names: the history of the name
His sonorous name b-R Osman is not due to the influence of the Ottoman Empire on the development of the city of Paris. Haussmann, Georges – Ezhena (Georges Eugene baron Haussmann) is a Baron, prefect of the city of Paris 1851-1870. According to a chronicle of the French capital, once on the place where today lies a modern Boulevard, stood a small house surrounded by a garden and it belonged to Alsace, Nicolas Osman, the intendant of Napoleon’s Army. Continue reading
The basis of Gothic design amounted to a cross ribbed vault (a rib – shaped protruding rib of a Gothic cross vault). Usually the edges of the arch emphasized the projecting rows of stones, and the use of Lancet arches to maintain the arches that were known in previous periods. But together these and other parts of the Gothic design has received a new Boolean value.
Scheme of ribbed vault
In Gothic has changed the system of a masonry ribbed vault. The ribs are now completed with the erection of the arch, and preceded him. 4 support was originally connected jaw arches (the arches at the ends of the arch), then threw two diagonal arches of ogive. This design was the skeleton of a future set. Forming the arch are called ribs. They were designed to bear and seal Stripping posted from lightweight slabs of stone. Ribbed arch favorably with a massive Romanesque by the fact that the point of application of the forces of gravity and thrust has Continue reading