Since the III Millennium ad, in Egypt are Grand, monumental buildings, temple complexes, irrigation and other facilities . Major construction of monumental stone buildings — wall and beam rack, which served as the basis of post-and-beam system . Of solid masonry were built with relatively simple funeral facilities — mastaba (bench), and then more complex — the ziggurats and pyramids ; post-and-beam system was used to build temples.
The Egyptians had carved huge stone blocks, which turned into obelisks, pillars and columns equal to the height of three, four storey building. Individual stone blocks were hewn diagonalise to each other without mortar. The unfolding of these blocks post-and-beam system acquired a different art form, which gradually turned into the constructive strict proportional composition (Fig. 1, a), later to be known as the order (. In the development of the Egyptian order is most clearly formed columns (pillars) and in particular the heads (capitals) (Fig. 1,b). Continue reading
Sharp wooden spire of the bell tower rises above the stone Church. Only up close you can see that this is not one, but two separate buildings, standing very close is the bell tower built in the XVIII century near the facade of the Gothic Church, which for three hundred years older. Stone temple Dating back to the XIV century, the outside does not seem particularly interesting. Neatly whitewashed small single-nave Church-the Church, built in a defensive style. However, the outward simplicity of the temple is deceptive. Special historical and artistic value is covered with paintings of the XVIII century the ceiling. It is made of wood and divided into 60 squares (tiles), each with painted stylized floral ornaments. The name of a carpenter working on the ceiling, you know – his name was Sandor Ferenc. On one of the wooden squares, the wizard left the image plane, and the other set a date of 1753. But the name of the artist history is silent.
Special glamor attached to the ceiling of the temple Matt black, white and gold colours of the squares on which the unknown painter has caused the amazing beauty of the patterns. Continue reading
The ancient Egyptians had many underground structures. It is easy to assume that they were illuminated by torches, or candles. Only in one building were found traces of soot, which certainly would cover the walls and ceiling. The assumption was that the lighting was provided with metal mirrors to reflect sunlight. However, the majority of underground corridors too winding. Too much you need to put the mirrors in the reflection of each subsequent mirror much brightness is lost. After the fourth reflection comes almost complete darkness.
In the burial chamber of Tutankhamun, the scientists were amazed at the wonderful frescoes that adorned its walls. Naturally, the question arose: what kind of lighting were used by the ancient wizards, putting murals on the walls? No smoke and mirrors camera could not be covered. Continue reading