Electric batteries and lamps of antiquity
The ancient Egyptians had many underground structures. It is easy to assume that they were illuminated by torches, or candles. Only in one building were found traces of soot, which…

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Victorian style in America
In the second half of the 19th century, architects in the United States of America began to lose interest in Greco-Roman classicism and began to create new styles based on…

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mountain

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The history of the Ancient world

The natural conditions of Ancient China. In Southeast Asia, cut off from the world by high mountains, lies the Great plain of China. In ancient times it was covered with dense forests. On the vast expanses of China plain there are two of the greatest rivers of Asia — the Yangtze and the yellow river. The soil along the banks of these rivers are so soft that they can handle even the simplest tools, made of wood or bone. Therefore, agriculture has spread here already in ancient times.

The most fertile land in the yellow river valley. Here there were the most ancient in China human settlements. But this river in the rainy season it often overflows and floods all around. Also it happens that because of the softness of the soil when the spill washes away the banks and changed the channel. The river has washed away human settlements and crops. Not by chance in China the yellow river is called “Wandering river”, “River of a thousand disasters”. Continue reading

Monastery Chelter-Marmara

Cave monastery Chelter-Marmara is located 1.5 km North-West from village Ternovka in the cliff Chelter-Kaya. The hallmark of the monastery is a huge hall of columns, the stone arch supported by the 5 strong pillars. In the Eastern part of the grotto is the Church, it is distinctly noticeable is the basis for the throne with an indentation for the relics.
Many Christian churches arose in those places that Jesus was worshiped as sacred. One such structure can be considered the cave monastery Chelter-Marmara, which occurred simultaneously with the Shuldan (VIII century), but more significant in size. Chelter translated as “grill”, Marmara – the name of the medieval village, situated at the foot of the mountains. There are more than 50 caves located in four tiers: cells, refectory, household and utility rooms, 4 Church. In ancient times they were connected by wooden stairs, balconies, galleries, looked like openwork lattice. Continue reading

The bases, foundations and underground structures

The pumping unit 429 Aggressiveness groundwater 68, 197, 397 Amplitude of oscillations of the Foundation 226, 227, 228 Anisotropism of a ground 59, 274 Anchor 106, 128, 395

— contraction 222

Infinite beam 145

— hard 135, 140

— the ultimate stiffness 235

— console 414

— continuous 133

— 145 semi-infinite

— cross 413

— base 44, 133, 199 Ballinest construction site 277 Bench knife sunk well 351, 352 Shoe of the column 50 the Berm 329, 337, 342 underwater Concreting 356 Continue reading

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