Since the III Millennium ad, in Egypt are Grand, monumental buildings, temple complexes, irrigation and other facilities . Major construction of monumental stone buildings — wall and beam rack, which served as the basis of post-and-beam system . Of solid masonry were built with relatively simple funeral facilities — mastaba (bench), and then more complex — the ziggurats and pyramids ; post-and-beam system was used to build temples.
The Egyptians had carved huge stone blocks, which turned into obelisks, pillars and columns equal to the height of three, four storey building. Individual stone blocks were hewn diagonalise to each other without mortar. The unfolding of these blocks post-and-beam system acquired a different art form, which gradually turned into the constructive strict proportional composition (Fig. 1, a), later to be known as the order (. In the development of the Egyptian order is most clearly formed columns (pillars) and in particular the heads (capitals) (Fig. 1,b). Continue reading
In 1982, for the first time since the 1950s, repaired the roof and praporom the Dovmont (Smerda) tower, first mentioned in 1433, and laid over now Smetime gate of the Kremlin, the level of which it is possible now to understand the level Veche square. Dovmont town in Pskov called the springs “City Domantovo wall”.
Dovmontova tower is completely distorted Gothic pseudohistorical the mid-nineteenth century, have been researched and published materials of the Discharge order stored in the Moscow Archives of the Ministry of Justice (the famous volume DEPARTMENT that appeared in the early twentieth century before World War I) and its containing a list of the Pskov fortress, prepared, generally, by the Governor and containing sufficiently detailed descriptions of the fortifications, and “outfits” (guns) on them.
In the end, Nicholas initiated the First of the first restoration of the Pskov Kremlin, without any justification brought into the Gothic, and even Percy (legit wall of the Pskov Krom) refused inclined and not vertical, as it should be and, in addition, inflated by several meters, which “pulled” the error in height all surrounding areas of the fortress wall at the further restorations. Continue reading
The natural conditions of Ancient China. In Southeast Asia, cut off from the world by high mountains, lies the Great plain of China. In ancient times it was covered with dense forests. On the vast expanses of China plain there are two of the greatest rivers of Asia — the Yangtze and the yellow river. The soil along the banks of these rivers are so soft that they can handle even the simplest tools, made of wood or bone. Therefore, agriculture has spread here already in ancient times.
The most fertile land in the yellow river valley. Here there were the most ancient in China human settlements. But this river in the rainy season it often overflows and floods all around. Also it happens that because of the softness of the soil when the spill washes away the banks and changed the channel. The river has washed away human settlements and crops. Not by chance in China the yellow river is called “Wandering river”, “River of a thousand disasters”. Continue reading