Since the III Millennium ad, in Egypt are Grand, monumental buildings, temple complexes, irrigation and other facilities . Major construction of monumental stone buildings — wall and beam rack, which served as the basis of post-and-beam system . Of solid masonry were built with relatively simple funeral facilities — mastaba (bench), and then more complex — the ziggurats and pyramids ; post-and-beam system was used to build temples.
The Egyptians had carved huge stone blocks, which turned into obelisks, pillars and columns equal to the height of three, four storey building. Individual stone blocks were hewn diagonalise to each other without mortar. The unfolding of these blocks post-and-beam system acquired a different art form, which gradually turned into the constructive strict proportional composition (Fig. 1, a), later to be known as the order (. In the development of the Egyptian order is most clearly formed columns (pillars) and in particular the heads (capitals) (Fig. 1,b). Continue reading
Sharp wooden spire of the bell tower rises above the stone Church. Only up close you can see that this is not one, but two separate buildings, standing very close is the bell tower built in the XVIII century near the facade of the Gothic Church, which for three hundred years older. Stone temple Dating back to the XIV century, the outside does not seem particularly interesting. Neatly whitewashed small single-nave Church-the Church, built in a defensive style. However, the outward simplicity of the temple is deceptive. Special historical and artistic value is covered with paintings of the XVIII century the ceiling. It is made of wood and divided into 60 squares (tiles), each with painted stylized floral ornaments. The name of a carpenter working on the ceiling, you know – his name was Sandor Ferenc. On one of the wooden squares, the wizard left the image plane, and the other set a date of 1753. But the name of the artist history is silent.
Special glamor attached to the ceiling of the temple Matt black, white and gold colours of the squares on which the unknown painter has caused the amazing beauty of the patterns. Continue reading
The natural conditions of Ancient China. In Southeast Asia, cut off from the world by high mountains, lies the Great plain of China. In ancient times it was covered with dense forests. On the vast expanses of China plain there are two of the greatest rivers of Asia — the Yangtze and the yellow river. The soil along the banks of these rivers are so soft that they can handle even the simplest tools, made of wood or bone. Therefore, agriculture has spread here already in ancient times.
The most fertile land in the yellow river valley. Here there were the most ancient in China human settlements. But this river in the rainy season it often overflows and floods all around. Also it happens that because of the softness of the soil when the spill washes away the banks and changed the channel. The river has washed away human settlements and crops. Not by chance in China the yellow river is called “Wandering river”, “River of a thousand disasters”. Continue reading