Since the III Millennium ad, in Egypt are Grand, monumental buildings, temple complexes, irrigation and other facilities . Major construction of monumental stone buildings — wall and beam rack, which served as the basis of post-and-beam system . Of solid masonry were built with relatively simple funeral facilities — mastaba (bench), and then more complex — the ziggurats and pyramids ; post-and-beam system was used to build temples.
The Egyptians had carved huge stone blocks, which turned into obelisks, pillars and columns equal to the height of three, four storey building. Individual stone blocks were hewn diagonalise to each other without mortar. The unfolding of these blocks post-and-beam system acquired a different art form, which gradually turned into the constructive strict proportional composition (Fig. 1, a), later to be known as the order (. In the development of the Egyptian order is most clearly formed columns (pillars) and in particular the heads (capitals) (Fig. 1,b). Continue reading
In 1982, for the first time since the 1950s, repaired the roof and praporom the Dovmont (Smerda) tower, first mentioned in 1433, and laid over now Smetime gate of the Kremlin, the level of which it is possible now to understand the level Veche square. Dovmont town in Pskov called the springs “City Domantovo wall”.
Dovmontova tower is completely distorted Gothic pseudohistorical the mid-nineteenth century, have been researched and published materials of the Discharge order stored in the Moscow Archives of the Ministry of Justice (the famous volume DEPARTMENT that appeared in the early twentieth century before World War I) and its containing a list of the Pskov fortress, prepared, generally, by the Governor and containing sufficiently detailed descriptions of the fortifications, and “outfits” (guns) on them.
In the end, Nicholas initiated the First of the first restoration of the Pskov Kremlin, without any justification brought into the Gothic, and even Percy (legit wall of the Pskov Krom) refused inclined and not vertical, as it should be and, in addition, inflated by several meters, which “pulled” the error in height all surrounding areas of the fortress wall at the further restorations. Continue reading
The ancient Egyptians had many underground structures. It is easy to assume that they were illuminated by torches, or candles. Only in one building were found traces of soot, which certainly would cover the walls and ceiling. The assumption was that the lighting was provided with metal mirrors to reflect sunlight. However, the majority of underground corridors too winding. Too much you need to put the mirrors in the reflection of each subsequent mirror much brightness is lost. After the fourth reflection comes almost complete darkness.
In the burial chamber of Tutankhamun, the scientists were amazed at the wonderful frescoes that adorned its walls. Naturally, the question arose: what kind of lighting were used by the ancient wizards, putting murals on the walls? No smoke and mirrors camera could not be covered. Continue reading