Since the III Millennium ad, in Egypt are Grand, monumental buildings, temple complexes, irrigation and other facilities . Major construction of monumental stone buildings — wall and beam rack, which served as the basis of post-and-beam system . Of solid masonry were built with relatively simple funeral facilities — mastaba (bench), and then more complex — the ziggurats and pyramids ; post-and-beam system was used to build temples.
The Egyptians had carved huge stone blocks, which turned into obelisks, pillars and columns equal to the height of three, four storey building. Individual stone blocks were hewn diagonalise to each other without mortar. The unfolding of these blocks post-and-beam system acquired a different art form, which gradually turned into the constructive strict proportional composition (Fig. 1, a), later to be known as the order (. In the development of the Egyptian order is most clearly formed columns (pillars) and in particular the heads (capitals) (Fig. 1,b). Continue reading
In 1982, for the first time since the 1950s, repaired the roof and praporom the Dovmont (Smerda) tower, first mentioned in 1433, and laid over now Smetime gate of the Kremlin, the level of which it is possible now to understand the level Veche square. Dovmont town in Pskov called the springs “City Domantovo wall”.
Dovmontova tower is completely distorted Gothic pseudohistorical the mid-nineteenth century, have been researched and published materials of the Discharge order stored in the Moscow Archives of the Ministry of Justice (the famous volume DEPARTMENT that appeared in the early twentieth century before World War I) and its containing a list of the Pskov fortress, prepared, generally, by the Governor and containing sufficiently detailed descriptions of the fortifications, and “outfits” (guns) on them.
In the end, Nicholas initiated the First of the first restoration of the Pskov Kremlin, without any justification brought into the Gothic, and even Percy (legit wall of the Pskov Krom) refused inclined and not vertical, as it should be and, in addition, inflated by several meters, which “pulled” the error in height all surrounding areas of the fortress wall at the further restorations. Continue reading
“History, carved in stone,” it’s a common expression is fully applicable to the Metropolitan Museum-reserve “Kolomenskoye”. The snow-white Church of the ascension built in the XVI century the Grand Duke Vasily III. Luxurious Royal gates built in the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich. On a nearby hill stands the Church of St. John the Baptist, built in honor of his accession to the throne of Ivan the terrible. But in Kolomenskoye is another special attraction. And not man-made and natural. This is the famous Voice of the ravine, which the number of stacked legends about him significantly ahead of all other local relics.
The origin of the name “Voters ravine” experts explain in different ways. The romance associated with his “voices of nature”. Indeed, in the summer there are always singing birds, chirping crickets and roaring water in the Creek.
However, more convincing seems to be another version of the mythological. Historians believe that originally, the ravine was called “hair” by the name of Volos, or Veles, the pagan God – the ruler of the underworld and the patron of domestic animals. Continue reading