Since the III Millennium ad, in Egypt are Grand, monumental buildings, temple complexes, irrigation and other facilities . Major construction of monumental stone buildings — wall and beam rack, which served as the basis of post-and-beam system . Of solid masonry were built with relatively simple funeral facilities — mastaba (bench), and then more complex — the ziggurats and pyramids ; post-and-beam system was used to build temples.
The Egyptians had carved huge stone blocks, which turned into obelisks, pillars and columns equal to the height of three, four storey building. Individual stone blocks were hewn diagonalise to each other without mortar. The unfolding of these blocks post-and-beam system acquired a different art form, which gradually turned into the constructive strict proportional composition (Fig. 1, a), later to be known as the order (. In the development of the Egyptian order is most clearly formed columns (pillars) and in particular the heads (capitals) (Fig. 1,b). Continue reading
Cave monastery Chelter-Marmara is located 1.5 km North-West from village Ternovka in the cliff Chelter-Kaya. The hallmark of the monastery is a huge hall of columns, the stone arch supported by the 5 strong pillars. In the Eastern part of the grotto is the Church, it is distinctly noticeable is the basis for the throne with an indentation for the relics.
Many Christian churches arose in those places that Jesus was worshiped as sacred. One such structure can be considered the cave monastery Chelter-Marmara, which occurred simultaneously with the Shuldan (VIII century), but more significant in size. Chelter translated as “grill”, Marmara – the name of the medieval village, situated at the foot of the mountains. There are more than 50 caves located in four tiers: cells, refectory, household and utility rooms, 4 Church. In ancient times they were connected by wooden stairs, balconies, galleries, looked like openwork lattice. Continue reading
The pumping unit 429 Aggressiveness groundwater 68, 197, 397 Amplitude of oscillations of the Foundation 226, 227, 228 Anisotropism of a ground 59, 274 Anchor 106, 128, 395
— contraction 222
Infinite beam 145
— hard 135, 140
— the ultimate stiffness 235
— console 414
— continuous 133
— 145 semi-infinite
— cross 413
— base 44, 133, 199 Ballinest construction site 277 Bench knife sunk well 351, 352 Shoe of the column 50 the Berm 329, 337, 342 underwater Concreting 356 Continue reading